Saratoga Springs, NY
Saratoga Springs, also known as simply Saratoga (though not to be confused with the nearby town of that name), is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census. The name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area. While the word "Saratoga" is known to be a corruption of a Native American name, authorities disagree on the original term and its meaning. The city is near the center of Saratoga County in upstate New York. The area was occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican Indians before they were pushed out by European settlement, both Dutch and English colonists. They eventually moved east and became allied with other remnant peoples and became known as the Stockbridge Indians, as they settled near Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The English built Fort Saratoga in 1691 on the west bank of the Hudson River. The current village of Schuylerville, New York was settled about a mile south by English colonists shortly after the fort; it was known as Saratoga until 1831. In 1767, William Johnson, a British soldier who was a hero of the French and Indian Wars, was brought by Native American friends to springs about 10 miles (16km) west of the village. They treated his war wounds, as the spring was thought to have medicinal properties. Now known as High Rock Spring, it may still be visited today. In 1756 Johnson had been appointed British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northeast region due to his success in building alliances with the Mohawk and other Iroquois tribes. He had learned the language, and created many trading relationships. He achieved great wealth from trading and landholdings, and was knighted for his service to the Crown with the Iroquois. The first permanent European-American settler built a dwelling about 1776. The springs attracted tourists, and Gideon Putnam built the first hotel for travelers. Putnam also laid out the roads and donated land for use as public spaces.